1. The Pupil asks: 'At whose wish does the mind sent forth proceed on
its errand? At whose command does the first breath go forth? At whose
wish do we utter this speech? What god directs the eye, or the ear?'
2. The Teacher replies: 'It is the ear of the ear, the mind of the
mind, the speech of speech, the breath of breath, and the eye of the
eye. When freed (from the senses) the wise, on departing from this
world, become immortal.
3. 'The eye does not go thither, nor speech, nor mind. We do not
know, we do not understand, how any one can teach it.
4. 'It is different from the known, it is also above the unknown,
thus we have heard from those of old, who taught us this.
5. 'That which is not expressed by speech and by which speech is
expressed, that alone know as Brahman, not that which people here adore.
6. 'That which does not think by mind, and by which, they say, mind
is thought, that alone know as Brahman, not that which people here
7. 'That which does not see by the eye, and by which one sees (the
work of) the eyes, that alone know as Brahman, not that which people
8. 'That which does not hear by the ear, and by which the ear is
heard, that alone know as Brahman, not that which people here adore.
9. 'That which does not breathe by breath, and by which breath is
drawn, that alone know as Brahman, not that which people here adore.'
1. The Teacher says: 'If thou thinkest I know it well, then thou
knowest surely but little, what is that form of Brahman known, it may
be, to thee?'
2. The Pupil says: 'I do not think I know it well, nor do I know that
I do not know it. He among us who knows this, he knows it, nor does he
know that he does not know it.
3. 'He by whom it (Brahman) is not thought, by him it is thought; he
by whom it is thought, knows it not. It is not understood by those who
understand it, it is understood by those who do not understand it.
4. 'It is thought to be known (as if) by awakening, and (then) we
obtain immortality indeed. By the Self we obtain strength, by knowledge
we obtain immortality.
5. 'If a man know this here, that is the true (end of life); if he
does not know this here, then there is great destruction (new births).
The wise who have thought on all things (and recognized the Self in
them) become immortal, when they have departed from this world.'
1. Brahman obtained the victory for the Devas. The Devas became
elated by the victory of Brahman, and they thought, this victory is ours
only, this greatness is ours only.
2. Brahman perceived this and appeared to them. But they did not know
it, and said: 'What sprite (yaksha or yakshya) is this ?'
3. They said to Agni (fire): 'O Gatavedas, find out what sprite this
is.' 'Yes,' he said.
4. He ran toward it, and Brahman said to him: 'Who are you?' He
replied: 'I am Agni, I am Gatavedas.'
5. Brahman said: 'What power is in you?' Agni replied: 'I could burn
all whatever there is on earth.'
6. Brahman put a straw before him, saying: 'Burn this.' He went
towards it with all his might, but he could not burn it. Then he
returned thence and said: 'I could not find out what sprite this is.' 7.
Then they said to Vayu (air): 'O Vayu, find out what sprite this is.' 'Yes,'he
8. He ran toward it, and Brahman said to him: 'Who are you?' He
replied: 'I am V'ayu, I am Matarisvan.'
9. Brahman said: 'What power is in you?' Vayu replied: 'I could take
up all whatever there is on earth.'
10. Brahman put a straw before him, saying: 'Take it up.' He went
towards it with all his might, but he could not take it up. Then he
returned thence and said: 'I could not find out what sprite this is.'
11. Then they said to Indra: 'O Maghavan, find out what sprite this
is.' He went towards it, but it disappeared from before him.
12. Then in the same space (ether) he came towards a woman, highly
adorned: it was Uma, the daughter of Himavat. He said to her: 'Who is
1. She replied: 'It is Brahman. It is through the victory of Brahman
that you have thus become great.' After that he knew that it was
2. Therefore these Devas, viz. Agni, Vayu, and Indra, are, as it
were, above the other gods, for they touched it (the Brahman) nearest.
3. And therefore Indra is, as it were, above the other gods, for he
touched it nearest, he first knew it.
4. This is the teaching of Brahman, with regard to the gods
(mythological): It is that which now flashes forth in the lightning, and
now vanishes again.
5. And this is the teaching of Brahman, with regard to the body
(psychological): It is that which seems to move as mind, and by it
imagination remembers again and again.
6. That Brahman is called Tadvana, by the name of Tadvana it is to be
meditated on. All beings have a desire for him who knows this.
7. The Teacher: 'As you have asked me to tell you the Upanishad, the
Upanishad has now been told you. We have told you the Brahmi Upanishad.
8. 'The feet on which that Upanishad stands are penance, restraint,
sacrifice; the Vedas are all its limbs, the True is its abode.
9. 'He who knows this Upanishad, and has shaken off all evil, stands
in the endless, unconquerable world of heaven, yea, in the world of