six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy, or darshanas, which are based
on the Vedas (including the Upanishads and Gitas). These are known as
astika or orthodox.
astika schools are:
Uttara Mimamsa (Vedanta)
logical analysis. Those who subscribe to this philosophy believe that by
the use of perception valid knowledge resulting in moksha could be
acquired. The perception includes the senses and insight, inference,
analogy, and verbal testimony.
derives from a term meaning a category of knowledge denoting essential
difference, individuality, or particularity. Vaishesika school pays
great importance to the concept of substance. Substance is said to be
made of five elements, viz., earth, water, light, air, and ether. Other
concepts that are important in Vaishesika school include the concepts of
time, space, the essence of being (the atman) and mind. Everything has
its unique essence or its particularity. Release is obtained by
recognizing the atomic nature of the universe, recognizing the
difference between matter and soul and the separation of the two.
Ethical conduct was important in achieving this goal.
one of the oldest known philosophical system in the world. It can be
traced back the the Indus valley civilization, (circa about 1700 BCE)
even though the writings of its legendary founder, the Samkhya-karika,
only belong to the third century CE.
means 'enumeration'. It is a dualistic system which postulates two
ultimate or eternal realities: purusha and prakriti.
principle behind Samkhya is the complete cessation of pain and
suffering. This is attained through yoga. Samkhya teaches that
individual souls (Purushas) and matter (Prakriti) have existed since
time immemorial: both are uncreated. Purusha is neither produced
(created) or productive. Prakriti is also unproduced but is productive.
Thus it changes and evolves, although it can never be destroyed.
complete cessation of pain is the goal of humanity.' according to Kapila,
the sage who is regarded as the originator of Samkhya.
Pain is an awareness of dissatisfaction, alienation from the
cause of bliss or peace, craving after illusory goals, or wrong
attachment. It may not involve physical suffering as we normally expect
it to be.
to samkhya philosophy, the cause of pain could be traced to the soul or
cosmic spirit (purusha) which is not identical with the body or matter (prakriti).
The purusha, although free, but is so caught up with matter that it
appears to be in bondage to it. This results in the pain.
for the existence of purusha takes the form of the awareness which human
beings have of a state which transcends the realities of phenomenal
experience, and the desire to attain it. The existence of prakriti is
self-evident. Samkhya divides prakriti into twenty-four parts, of which
the most important are the three gunas, sattva, rajas and tamas.
potential consciousness, goodness, pleasure, pain, bewilderment. It
binds the purusha to things like wisdom and joy, thus apparently
depriving it of freedom.
activity or passion. It leads to craving and desire.
darkness, the coarse quality which results in ignorance.
is obtained by freeing the purusha from the influence of sattva, rajas,
and tamas. Once it is set free, the purusha can enjoy kaivalyam,
categories outlined in samkhya have to be controlled and their influence
eliminated. This is done through yoga.
Yoga is one
of the six astika schools of philosophy. Yoga is often perceived as a
physical discipline. However, in yoga, control of the body can be
achieved by sitting in a comfortable chair; it does not necessarily has
to involve complex asenas or poses.
philosophy recognizes the concept of Ishvara. Ishvara means Lord. It is
mentioned in the Yoga Sutra. The worship of God is very important for
some seekers after perfection. It describes Ishvara thus:
a special type of spirit, untouched by suffering, works (karma), or the
result of works or impressions. In him is the highest knowledge of
everything. He was guru of the ancients and is not limited by time.
recognizes bhakti as an object of devotion, a help to meditation, and
concentration, and a model of perfection.
Yoga Infocenter in Holisticonline.com
is coupled with Vedanta, but was merely an exposition of the Vedas
rather that a way of liberation. Eventually, it affirmed that moksha was
to be obtained by respect for the Vedas and observation of the rituals
included in them. It later tended to merge with Vedanta, and was
therefore sometimes called Uttara Mimamsa, or later Mimamsa.
means the Veda's end, and has also been described as complete knowledge
of the Vedas and is used to refer to the philosophies which began with
the Upanishads (which are themselves philosophical treatises in the form
of the teachings of gurus to their disciples).